Problems, Prospects, and Effects of Health and Wealth Gospel in Nigeria (Part 2)

Prospects of Health and Wealth Gospel in Nigeria

            The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines prospects as “the chance or hope that something will happen is an idea of what may or will happen, and the chances of being successful.”23 The faith movement or the health and wealth gospel has a very great prospect in Nigeria should they preach the whole counsel of God to the people. It is true that one can do theology in Africa with the mind of ignoring a major issue like poverty. Poverty is an important characteristic of the Third World nations. Like in the world of R.S. Sugirtharajah, “One of the significant contributions of Third World Theologies has been to put poverty at the center of theological discussions. Given the disparate conditions in which these theologies arise, their articulation of poverty, too differs from context to context.”24

            In Africa, people face socio-economic poverty as well as another kind of poverty that late Engelbert Mveng, a Cameroonian theologian, called anthropological poverty. This is not about exterior circumstances or about not having material possessions. It is about the interior of African selfhood that has been affected as centuries of colonialism robbed Africans of their own ways of living and their cultural heritage. Sadly, the resulting low self-esteem has caused them to internalize the values and models of their oppressors.25

            How then can one lead the church in Africa and Nigeria especially without teaching on this major subject? What we are however, advocating is to teach exactly what the Bible teaches. The Bible, according to Robert E. Coleman, “is its own best interpreter.”26

            The Faith Movement teachers are quite correct in pointing believers to God and the wonderful promises made in his word in order to get their needs met. The Bible clearly states that under normal circumstances God is aware of the needs of his children and will meet every legitimate need of theirs (Matt. 6:8, 25-32). According to Jesus, man’s basic needs are food, drink and clothing. St. Paul similarly says that man’s basic needs are: food and covering, and with these we should be content (I Tim. 6:8). But in defining basic needs, faith teachers have gone beyond Jesus and Paul.

            The Greek word for need,creia, literally means something without which we shall die, or no longer be able to function. But for faith teachers, need means: new houses, fancy cars (and you can actually decree what brand and color you want), expensive clothing, and enough cash in order to live like kings, since we are royal sons and daughters, kings and queens in the real sense.27

            The doctrine fails to make any distinction between need and want. Under normal circumstances, God has promised to meet every legitimate need of his children. However, nowhere has God promised that he will give what we need to satisfy our lust and desires. Instead Christians are urged to crucify their lust.28 So, when based on true biblical teaching the faith-movement has a great potential in Winning Souls to the Kingdom of God and giving them proper discipleship.

            According to Neval Coyle,

We live in a fractured world. Nation is pitted against nation. Ethnic group against ethnic group. Race against race. Employees against employers. Government against private enterprise. Women against men. The “right” against the “left.” We even face church splits and fragmented families. In this climate of differences that divide people from each other, in this world of sin that separates people from God, we Christians are given the ministry of reconciliation.29 That is why we must turn to our relationship with God as a foundation as we move into this much – needed ministry.30

The above stressed the need for us to reconcile the world to God and thus preparing them to reign with Christ. No other ministry of the church is greater than this.

 Effects of Health and Wealth on Christian and National Development

            A lot of evil has been done on the values of Christianity in Nigeria in the last three decades, as a result of the “different gospel” preached by the health and wealth exponents. This has by extension affected the moral value of people in our society, especially the Christians. This has reflected itself in many ways. It includes: spiritual, social, psychological, physical effects. Let us look at these one after the other.

Spiritual Effects

            By spiritual effects, the researcher implies, the damage the health and wealth gospel has caused the church in Nigeria spiritually and how it has affected our national development. As earlier highlighted, the life-style of a genuine child of God should be a great catalyst for positive change anywhere he finds himself. But the content of the sort of gospel preached by the “Faith” preachers has played down the importance of holy living in the life of believers.

            The best way to attract unbelievers to Jesus is through our behavior. That is, the way we live among the unbelievers. As George E. Sweazy, puts it, quoting Henry Drummond, “the best argument for Christianity is a Christian.”31 Believers are supposed to reproduce themselves and this can only be attained through good conduct wherever they find themselves.

            Our lives are our credentials as a child of God. Our influence on others depends most on what we are. Lawrence Howman said, “A saint is one who makes goodness attractive.”32 If we do that, if people sense in us a genuine kindness and devotion to Christ, then they will be receptive to what we have to say about the genuine Christian faith.

            It is however unfortunate that most Christians today are living below the biblical standard thereby hindering people from listening to us whenever we want to show Jesus to them. Our faith is shallow and staggering. It is a faith that is based on prosperity alone. According to Tozer:

Evangelical Christianity is now tragically below the New Testament Standard. Worldliness is an acceptable part of our way of live. Our religious mood is social instead of spiritual. We have lost the art of worship. We are not practicing saints. Our models are successful businessmen, celebrated athletes and the worldly personalities. We carry out religious activities after the model of the modern advertiser. Our literatures are shallow and scarcely anyone appears to care.33

 The above is the case of most churches today. We have been perverted by the teachings of the faith movement. Christian successes are now being judged by the type of car one rides and the numbers of cars one possesses, the type of house one stays and the kinds of clothing we wear. Being poor is now seen as an effect of sin. Most Christians today are lacking spiritually today in Nigeria. They have a wrong concept of God and that of themselves. The warning of Tozer is appropriate to conclude this section:

We must have a better kind of Christianity soon or within another half century we may have no true Christianity at all. Increased number of Demi-Christians is not enough. We must have reformation.34

            The unquenchable want of money by most of our political leaders cannot be divorced from this. The truth is, if all those who claim to be Christians are genuinely one, our Nation would be better for it. But the reverse is the case in Nigeria. The spiritual leaders who are supposed to show the road are themselves guilty of the same sin.

 Social Effects

            Sociology is the study of history, development, organization, and problems of people living together as a social group.35 It is a social science.36 Sociology is therefore the way we relate with other human beings and the given society we found ourselves. To divorce sociology from Religion is an impossible task.

            In fact, basic religious concept is important in the maintenance of all aspect of social machinery.37 Religions define sacred values and prescribe behavioral codes consistent with these values. There is, in short, a direct line of dependence between powerful sentiments of reverence, awe, and fear that religious beliefs generate and the rules that religions prescribe for leading a life that will assure divine approval. These rules in turn become important aspects of societal organization.38 But in what way has the Health and Wealth gospel helped in the realization of the aforementioned truth. To be precise, in what way has the prosperity message assisted to make Christianity a relevant religion to our society?

            In terms of social developments, one must commend the health and wealth gospel exponents. Because of the kind of money they have and the human resources they also possess, establishing business is not in anyway a problem to them. Several universities, primary and post-primary levels of education have been provided today by these churches. This has gone along way to assist the government and the citizens alike in the provision of Education to the people. It is however good to mention that, while it is true that only relatively rich individual can afford that for their children; we still have to appreciate them for the foresight. The health and wealth gospel exponents or founders have not contributed in education sector of our social life but also in other areas of the economy. These include: creation of jobs, infrastructural development such as real estates among several others.

            As good as these social contributions are, it is a curse if it had no spiritual values to the people and the nation. This of course is what health and wealth is guilty of. Perhaps that is why the health and wealth gospel has been referred to as the “Social gospel.”39 Social gospel came within liberalism of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a tendency to replace the gospel of regeneration with an emphasis upon transformation of society through alteration of its structures.40 The aim of the health and wealth gospel preachers is to improve the society, but it cannot be achieved when the Christian values of good conduct, behaviors, good relationship with others are not encouraged. This perhaps may account for the crimes and other social problems we have in Nigeria today.41 The Nigerian situation is that, the rich are becoming richer, while the poor growing poorer by the day. The complete and genuine gospel teaches help our poor neighbors.

            Jesus teaches that anyone in need is our neighbor (Luke 10:25-37). With this definition of neighbor, Jesus challenges Christians of unconcern for the needy with the reality of poverty in the world. Regrettably, the fact remains that the concern for the poor, a major biblical theme, has not received adequate attention by the churches.42 Health and Wealth encourages prosperity but there is little or no emphasis on helping the poor. This may be particularly so because the way they view the poor – “sinners”.

            The basic reason for this, according to Nebechukwu is that, “Poverty has so far lacked the material as distinct from the spiritual interpretation in Christian faith and piety.”43 That is why we have many “Solo”44 Christians today. The Christian value of fellowshipping with one another and sharing wealth with others as practiced in the early church45 is almost becoming a history in the church today. All these and more are the effects of Health and Wealth gospel on Christian and Nigeria as a nation today.

Psychological Effects

            Erickson J. Millard defines psychology as “the study of the thoughts, emotions, and behavior of human beings.46 In other words, it is the study that provides self-awareness for the human and their reaction to what happens around them. The questions of Millard Sall make the definition more explicit: What kind of person are you? What do you think of yourself? Are you a good or bad person?47 Psychology provides the tools to give one insight about these questions.48 Many people don’t know how to look at themselves or realistically know how they feel about themselves.49 In a brief sense, psychology is the study of the way people’s mind work. It is the way that a particular kind of person thinks and behaves.50

            With the above background, the researcher under this heading discusses the effects of Health and Wealth gospel on Christians and National development in Nigeria. The first effect of the health and wealth gospel as aforementioned is the way people think. Most Nigerians now, especially young people believe they have to be rich by all means. According to Folarin, the very problem of message as advocated by David Oyedepo and others is that “it is the gospel that defines poverty as sin.”51 According to him, two points sum up this definition: It is exclusively financial, and it neglects the spiritual well-being of the people.52 This conception has greatly affected the church on the sort of Christian she now produces.

            Besides, another way the health and wealth gospel has affected people’s psychology is the way members run from their original denomination to theirs. Folarin, for instance gave the effect of this on the evangelical churches in Nigeria, with specific interest in the Nigerian Baptist Convention (NBC) and Evangelical Church of West Africa (ECWA). According to him, an interview was recently conducted in the Nigerian Baptist Convention and ECWA and 63.27% and 75% respondents respectively agreed to loosing some members to the Faith Movement Denominations in Nigeria.53 One reason for this drift could be the similarity in the concerns expressed in the prosperity gospel and in the African worldview. From time immemorial, Africans have been longing for freedom from sickness, demon oppression, and poverty. Although, the faith movement preachers have tried to address these challenges, it has little or no provision for the salvation of it adherents.

            Any gospel that fails to address the Soteriology of man is not a true and complete gospel. That perhaps accounts for the reason why many of the Christians we have today are not only disappointment to the church but also to the nation. Our mind has been corrupted to pursue the things of the world at the expense of the things of God which of course have eternal value.


23 A. S. Hornsby, “Prospects,” in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, ed. Jonathan Crowther (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 931.

24 R.S. Sugirtharajah, “Poverty,” in Dictionary of the Third World Theologies, ed. Virginia Fabella, MM. et

    al. (New York: Orbis Books, 20000, 170-171.

25 R.S. Sugirtharajah, “Poverty,” in Dictionary of the Third World Theologies, ed. Virginia Fabella, MM. et al. (New York: Orbits Books, 20000, 170-171.

26 Robert E. Coleman, The Master Plan of Discipleship (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House Company, 1998), 14.

27 Abogunrin, 272.

28 Romans 6:1-14, 12:1-3; Galatians 5:16-24; Colossians 3:1-7.

29 Neva Coyle,  Learning to Know God (Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers, 1993), 83.

30 Ibid.

31 George E. Sweazy, The Church as Evangelist: Making Evangelism a Priority of Local Congregation  (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1978), 32.

32 Ibid., 33.

33 A.W. Tozer, “The First Obligation of the Church,” Herald of His Coming January 2002, 4.

34 Ibid.

35 M. Webster, “Sociology,” in Webster’s New Twentieth Century Dictionary (Mexico: William Collins World Publishing Company, 1979), 1723.

36 Ibid.

37 Melvin L. Defleur, Sociology: Human Society (Dallas: Foresman and Company, 1976), 489.

38 Defleur, 489-491.

39 Social Gospel is a liberal movement in American Protestantism, Prominent in the late 19th century, which sought to apply Christian principles to a variety of social problems engendered by industrialization. Its founders and leaders included the clergymen Washington Gladden and Walter Reuchenbusch, who tried to counteract the effects of expounded capitalism by teaching religion and human dignity to the working class. Proponents of the Social Gospel also opposed the tacit support given by organized religion to unrestricted capitalism.

The Social Gospel’s movement’s views were formerly expressed in 1908 when the Federal Council of the churches of Christ in America (a forerunner of the National Council of Churches) adopted a “Social creed of the churches.” This creed called for the abolition of child labor, improved working conditions for women, a day off each week, and the right of all workers to a living wage. Many of the aims of the Social Gospel movement were espoused by organized labor in the early years of the century, and some were later incorporated in the New Deal programs of the 1930s (Microsoft Encarta Premium “Social Gospel” in).

40 Millard, 155.

41 __________, “Sociology,” in World Book Encyclopedia (Chicago: World Book-Child craft International  Inc., Volume 8, 1981), 458.

42 Augustine U. Nebechukwu, “Solidarity with the Poor: Christian Response to Poverty” (African Theological Journal Vol. 19, No. 2, 1990), 98.

43 Nebechukwu, 96.

44 Solo Christians are Christians concerned with their own individual interest. The interests of others have   no place in the minds.

45 Acts 4:32-37.

46 Millard, 136.

47 Millard J. Sall, The, Psychology and Christian Maturity (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1975), 12.

48 Ibid.

49 Millard J. Sall, The, Psychology and Christian Maturity (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1975), 12.

50 Stephen Bullon, et al., “Psychology,” in Longman Active Study Dictionary (Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited, 2004), 592.

51 G.O. Folarin, “The Prosperity Gospel in Nigeria: A Re-Examination of the Concept, Its Impacts and Evaluation” www://http:cybesource.org., 1

52 Ibid.

53 Ibid.

Problems, Prospects and Effects of Health and Wealth Gospel In Nigeria (Part 1)

Origin of Health and Wealth Gospel in Nigeria

One of the earliest preachers of Health and Wealth gospel in Nigeria was Bishop Benson Andrew Idahosa. In fact, it would not be out-of-place to refer to Benson Idahosa as the father of Faith Movement in Nigeria. Like every other part of the world, the ‘Faith Movement’ group has gained enormous influence in Nigeria even after the death of Benson Idahosa. This is so because Idahosa was succeeded (directly or indirectly) in mentoring some of the exponents of Faith Movement that we have around now in Nigeria.

The Health and Wealth preachers have capitalized on the poverty stricken nature of our nation to propagate their gospel. Nigeria’s case is not any different from the common characteristics of the third world nations. What do you think of the continent with vast resources both natural and human, yet in dire poverty? It is the continent where war is common, hunger pervades, where poverty prevails, where sicknesses and disease (including HIV/AIDS) are vastly conquering. It is a general recognition that our politicians, greedy and selfish, fight for power, perpetuate themselves in power; amass the property, resources and wealth of the people to themselves1.  They struggle for power in a Machiavellian2 way, eliminate the opponents, and embezzled the nation’s resources insatiably. That is the peculiar characteristics of the Third World nations and Nigeria is inclusive.

Serious emphases have been laid on prosperity gospel in Nigeria as a result of the aforementioned factors. Most preachers in Nigeria now have taught their parishioners that Christians cannot be poor. The exponents promised each believer financial prosperity and perfect health. Anything less, they argue, is not God’s will.3 It is however unfortunate to see how their meetings are loaded with people wanting to be rich at all cost. Colson Pearcey called this gospel “The most poisonous gospel of our time.”4

The teachings of health and wealth preachers have also been greatly influenced by belief in destiny, predestination as taught in African Traditional Religion.5 God has destined everyone to be rich, but in order to realize this, one must follow certain principles and above all obey God’s injunction by paying tithes. The basic message of prosperity gospel is that it is God’s will and plans to free all believers from sickness and material poverty. This ideal can be attained by exercising the right kind of faith and following certain prescribed confessional formula, and which they sometimes call “divine principles” in order to agree with God and decree his will. God is all possessing, all powerful and all benevolent. If he liberated us from the curse of sin at a very dear prize of his only begotten Son, what else can he not do for us? Why should he deny us the good things of life and allow those who are not his children as we are, to have them in abundance.6 The above is the thrust of the Health and Wealth Gospel in Nigeria. The researcher takes time to evaluate this teaching much later in this work.

Problems of Health and Wealth Gospel in Nigeria

Our cities in Nigeria are flourishing with the new era churches. They are founded in their tens and scores on a single street, depending on the location and length of a particular popular street. Sometimes, two or three churches do occupy different floors of the same building, each with its loud speakers disturbing not only each other, but the general public, especially at night. The astronomical increase in the number of church founders began about thirty years ago in Nigeria, especially in the 1980, when things went wrong with the management of our economy. Young graduates of universities and polytechnics who could not find job, started to float churches. Since the middle of the 1960s, the writings of Kenneth Hagin floated Nigeria and by the 1980s, he had had thousands of followers. Although Hagins were declared a heretic by the church in the 1960s, it appears that the church both in America and in Africa underrated Hagins influence and therefore failed to react strongly in writing and teaching to correct several of his wrong doctrines.7  Most of those who floated churches in Nigeria and elsewhere became Hagins disciples, adopting his methodology and doctrines. One cannot imagine the damages that these “make money quick” and “anyhow” doctrine have done to the church and our nation as a whole. The dignity of labor is gradually fading out. Even the pastoral dignity has been generally disrespected as a result of the ways most of these money preaching pastors comport themselves in the society.

It was in a reaction to this trait that one our dailies comments: “Right Now, Pentecostalism, which is a reaction to the perceived lethargy as the orthodox churches in Nigeria; is also experiencing its own antithesis. There is a drift from preaching of salvation to whole-scale mercantilism or prosperity preaching. Besides, these preachers themselves have become accomplished businessmen.”8  This has brought several of those pastors to public scandals and yet they would not change for the better. The News Magazine says, “despite being a regular subject of scandals, the followers of a very popular prosperity preacher, continue to increase. The preacher’s teaching of “sowing the seed” draws strict adherence.”9 The teaching enjoins followers to give part of their offerings and tithes as requirements for divine blessings. With a church brimming of young company executives and businessmen, every programme yields mega-earnings. Followers without money are implored to “sow seeds” with jewelry, wristwatches and other ornaments in lieu of offering or tithes. Some have been said to give cars, generators, musical equipment and chairs to the church.”

 The Magazine explains further that, “Six years ago, Lawrence Agada, an assistant pastor and former cashier with Lagos Sheraton Hotels and Towers, donated cash and gifts worth N39 million to the church. He bought a 250 KVA generator valued at N4.4 million and another 27KVA generator for N1.5 and turned them over to a satellite arm of the church. Earlier, he had provided N6 million for the refurbishment of the branch, N1 million for the purchase of plastic seats for the headquarters and contributed another N1 million to the ‘Man of God’s’ crusade. Agada also gave N400, 000 to his pastor, who needed money for a trip to Australia. Chuffed that Agada had obeyed the teaching on seed sowing, Oyakhilome wrote to commend the cheerful giver.” May God, who gives seed to the Sewer and bread for eater, multiply your seeds in Jesus name,” wrote the preacher.10

But Jesus did not multiply Agada’s seeds. Instead, the giver became a guest to the police when his employers discovered that he had stolen from them to give to the church. Agada’s employers demanded a refund of the stolen sum. However, the church issued astatement admitting that Agada made donations, but refused to make the desired refund.11 One year later, another Gbenga Kehinde, donated to the church in similar fashion. Then an assistant manager with the defunct Eko International Bank, Kehinde stole about N40 million from his employers and donated N10 million to he church. Meanwhile, according to the Magazine, information on the preacher’s background are notoriously sketchy, something that seems to add to his mystique.12

A week after the publication of the aforementioned article on “the man ……” many comments began to roll in. let us look at some of the comments:

Funsho Okugbe from Benin City commented:

Pastor Chris Oyakhilome has finally confirmed his status as a showman and money Mayer. Who says, men of God cannot be men of ways and means? After all, man must not live by the Bible alone.13

Everest Chaeto’s comments:

I don’t understand why men of God should pre-occupy themselves with the construction of earthly mansions. Have they forgotten the biblical admonition that, of what profit is it for a man to gain the whole world and lose his soul? I just wonder!14

 Ismail Sule also commented from Osogbo:

The church has been turned into a big business. Pastor Chris Oyakhilome is one of the greatest apostles of prosperity. I just hope all his flocks are rich.15

 Let us see Ibrahim Madoki’s comment from Onitsha:

The churches, including Christ Embassy, should be heavily taxed because they make more money than banks. Sadly, too, the General Overseers convert church assets into their personal belongings. The earlier members protest the better.16

 Efi Omonude also commented from Benin City:

The materialistic life of Pastor Chris Oyakhilome shows that, indeed, the so-called shepherds feed fat on the flock, while the rich get richer in the church, the poor get poorer.17

 Finally, let us see Chizoba Christopher Ogbunugator’s comment. His, though very true has a denominational bias:

In most churches, the emphasis is on worldly wealth, prosperity, miracles, signs and wonders etc, hence, the constant promotion of tithes, seed – sowing etc. Hardly does one hear about ‘spirituality’ and saving of one’s soul by living holy on earth. This is a veritable sign that the end times are nigh. But in Christ-inspired establishments like the Catholic Church, the members are usually warned that God does not accept or bless ill-gotten offering and tithes, no matter how huge the amount! Anybody who donates stolen wealth to the alter of God in the Catholic Church does so at his or her own spiritual peril.18

 The above comments show the type of eyes with which people look at the church in Nigeria today especially the so-called servants of God. Servants of God are supposed  exemplary in the way they lead their lives but the reverse is gradually becoming the case in Nigeria.

The unfortunate thing about the matter with the so called servants of God is that, most of them usually start well but they gradually get polluted and contaminated later in their ministries. For instance, the saying magazine said about Pastor Chris Oyakhilome as someone who was brought up in a strict Christian home and started his ministry in his undergraduate days.19

Abogunrin also spoke in similar direction when he said, “at first, the set of people who started their own churches in Nigeria, were preaching holiness of life, commitment to Christ, with emphasis in the teaching of the word of God. However, one after the other, most of them abandoned the original vision and goal, and gradually became prosperity preachers.”20 In a few years, most of them became strikingly rich. Floating a church today has become the biggest business enterprise in Nigeria, and one can become a multimillionaire in one year, once the person has a sweat mouth and arms himself with prosperity message. Quite often, many of them are completely ignorant of the major teachings of the Bible and Christian doctrines.

  Abogunrin went further to say:

Many charismatic prosperity leaders are involved in occultic practices, involving sacrifice and the use of juju and talisman. The way many of them raise money is quite dubious. You can go to a church with a car and good shoes, but return home barefooted, and with nothing. After donating all the money a person has on himself, he is encouraged to sow seed by parting with his car, shoes, bag and jewelries. Many of them are palace prophets, dancing around the corridors of power and houses of rich men and women. The same pastor could prophesy, promising victory to political opponents competing for the same office, and shamelessly collecting money from all of them. Church properties are registered in the name of the founder and his family. Most of them ordain their wives and some of their children, with a view of their taking over from them in the event of death. The church is viewed as the major family business enterprise. Many of them also set up other business empires in addition to church business. They are the alpha and omega of their church affairs and finances. They are not accountable to church members who more or less literally worship them. Their pronouncements are final on any issue.21

   The tragedy of the matter is that when members donate their millions, they do not border about the sources of such heavy donations. The effect of this is the “get-rich quick” syndromes that have overwhelmed our youths. The legacy of faithfulness, contentment and integrity has no place in our nation again. Corruption is now the other of the day everywhere today including churches. Prosperity churches are usually the ones patronized by drug barons, smugglers, armed robbers and women of easy virtue. Most of the messages preached quite often in those churches are the type that will not trouble conscience of listeners. What they hear always is that the more they give to the church, the bigger the blessings. They ride the latest cars and live in mansions. They go out in company of several armed security guards and in a convoy of cars, with pilot cars blowing the siren in the lead. There are also those who carry whips to scare away other legitimate road users. Now, instead of the church to be the solution to the problem of corruption in Nigeria, she is not only a major player of the sin but also a compounder of the problem. This has become an attitudinal problem in Nigeria today. The statement of John Onaiyekan is very proper here: “Part of the problems and obstacles that prevent Nigeria from reaching where it should be, has to do with the attitudes of the people” especially toward health and wealth.22


1 Babatomiwa M. Owojaiye, “Theological Emphasis in 2/3 World Countries” (A Term Paper presented at ECWA Theological Seminary Igbaja, M.A., 2006), 4.

2 Machiavellianism is the Seizure, Maintenance, and extension of absolute power by the nicely graduated use of guile, fraud, force and terror (“Machiavellianism” in The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of English Language edited by Allen Walker Read, et al., Naples Florida: Trident Press International, 2004), 762.

3 MacArthur, 325.

4 Colson Percey, How Now Shall We Live? (Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1999), 27.

5 Abogunrin 271.

6 Abogunrin, 276.

7 Abogunrin, 276.

8 The New Magazine, 18 February, 2008 vol. 30 No. 06, 19.

9 Michael Mukwizi & Blessing  Ogunli, A Pulpit Tycoon” (The New Magazine, 18 February, 2008, Vol. 30, No. 06), 24.

10 Michael Mukwuzi and Blessing Ognuli, 24.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid.

13 The News Magazine, “Pastor Oyekhilome’s Business Empire” (Feedback, Vol. 30 No 08, 03 March,   2008), 7-9.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

16 Ibid.

17 “Oyakhilome’s Business Empire – Feedback,” 7-9.

18 Ibid

19 Michael Mukwuzi and Blessing Ogwuli, 24.

20 Abogunrin, 275.

21 Ibid 275-276.

22 John Onaiyekan, “Christian Values and Social Development in Nigeria,” in Attitude Matters: The Role of Attitude in Nigeria’s Development (Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited, 2006), 129.